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It grows fairly quickly [ 8 ]. Pandanus leaves are mostly used in the Southeast Asian cooking Thomson et al. Cultivation of P. The plant can be propagated by off sets or division of the suckers.
For raising scented types, a fertile, well-drained-soil is preferable. The tree begins to flower 3 to 4 years after planting. The flowering period is rainy season July—October. The flowers are harvested early in the morning, and the spa dices take a fortnight to mature, depending upon the weather conditions. In India and Burma, the male flowers are valued for their fragrance and some kewda products. Highly prized by Indian perfumer a fully mature tree bears 30—40 spadices in a year. It is estimated that there are about 30—40 thousand trees in Ganjam district and nearly to a million spa dices are annually used for the production of kewda attar, kewda water, and kewda oil [ 9 ].
Transverse section of leaf showed the presence of single layered upper and lower thin walled epidermal cells, with a moderately thick cuticle, and cells are more or less rectangular. Covering type, unicellular, thick walled, lignified Trichomes, pointed at one end and has a base like that of a hockey stick are emerge from the epidermal layers.
Stomata are also seen in the epidermal layer. Mesophyll forms the bulk and is differentiated into thin walled, large, polyhedral, colorless parenchyma with intercellular spaces and 3 to 4 layered, tightly arranged spongy parenchyma Chlorenchyma. Numerous bundles of acicular rap hides and calcium oxalate crystals as prisms were seen in the parenchymatous cells of mesophyll. Collateral vascular bundles were seen at regular intervals and have protoxylem followed by metaxylem towards upper epidermis and phloem followed by bundle sheath extension sclerenchyma towards lower epidermis.
The whole vascular bundle is covered by border parenchyma. The TS of the leaf when treated with safranin vascular bundles have stained with pink color and when treated with Sudan red lignified cell wall produced red color.
Coarsely powdered shade dried leaf of P. It primarily consists of Scalariform and annular xylem vessels; covering type, unicellular, thick walled Trichomes which are lignified and pointed at one end and has a base like that of a hockey stick; paracytic stomata with straight walled epidermal cells surrounding it. Calcium oxalate crystals as prism and acicular raphids scattered in parenchyma. Stomata number and stomata index of leaf of P. The value of stomata index of upper epidermis is 23 and lower epidermis is Growth and development vary with sex of plant male or female , variety, and types of planting stock seedling or branch cutting.
Male plants are usually more branched, up to about 30 branches maximum 60 , than females, up to about 15 branches maximum The life span of established Pandanus plants is typically about 50—80 years but longevity may be much greater, as long as — years in some environments. The productive fruiting life of vegetatively propagated plants may be only 20—25 years. Senescence is associated with a gradual decline in branch diameter, leaf size, and number of live branches. Branch death is due to the death of the apical meristem, mainly due to insect damage or breakage.
Percentage yield and physical characteristics of various extracts of leaf Pandanus are shown in Table 3. Phytochemical structures in Pandanus odoratissimus Linn. The principle constituent is the kewda oil, isolated from the inflorescences of Pandanus. The chemical composition of this essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation of staminate inflorescences of kewda P. The methanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Pandanus were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and they were tested for the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins, steroids, sterols, phenols, tannins, terpenes, flavonoids, gums and mucilage, saponins, and glycosides [ 10 ].
The total phenolic content in the aqueous extract was ranged from 3. Phytochemicals chemical analysis of the root extracts of P. Among them, pinoresinol and 3,4-bis 4-hydroxymethoxybenzyl tetrahydrofuran showed strong antioxidative activities when BHA was used as a standard in the thiocyanate method.
Altafhusain Nadaf Rahul Zanan Auth. Indian Pandanaceae an Overview Springer India 2012
The methanol extract of P. And total synthesis of four Pandanus alkaloid: Pandamarilactonine-A, and B, and their chemical precursors non Pandamarilactonine-A and B [ 37 ]. They are also widely consumed on Tokelau and Tuvalu [ 11 ]. In some places the consumption of Pandanus has decreased in recent decades due to the availability of imported foods; for example, Pandanus was formerly a major staple food in Nauru [ 38 ].
The fruit pulp is preserved in several different ways. A paste, which is compared to dates in taste, texture, and appearance, is made by boiling and baking the keys, followed by extracting, processing, and drying the pulp. Cultivars with large amounts of pulp are preferred, and the taste differs among cultivars.
Fresh Pandanus is an important source of vitamin C. Preserved Pandanus pulp mixed with coconut cream makes a tasty, sweet food item. Pandanus can also be made into flour that is consumed in different ways, usually prepared as a drink Figure 2. The keys of selected edible cultivated varieties, those with low amounts of calcium oxalate crystals, are consume draw or cooked. Juice and jam may also be prepared from the fruit. In parts of Micronesia, chewing Pandanus keys is usually done outside of meal times and is a pleasurable, highly social activity.
Adults may typically consume 20—50 keys daily during the main fruiting seasons [ 11 ]. The edible flesh of deeper yellow- and orange-colored varieties contain higher provitamin A carotenoid levels.
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The fruit of these varieties has considerable potential for alleviating vitamin A deficiency in Micronesia [ 11 ]. As carotenoid-rich food may protect against diabetes, heart disease, and cancer, the consumption of Pandanus may also alleviate these serious emerging problems of the Pacific. Pandanus fruit is also a useful source of vitamin C ascorbic acid , thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin vitamin B-3 [ 14 , 15 ].
The fruit of wild forms of Pandanus contains oxalate crystals that irritate the mouth unless broken down by cooking. The ripe fruit of wild forms may be consumed following cooking and straining the pericarp, but they are not especially palatable or sweet Table 5.
The small seeds of a few varieties of P. A similar species, P. Juice pressed from the fruits is sweet and slightly acid with a pungent flavor [ 15 ]. It is being produced commercially in the Marshall Islands. Different parts of the Pandanus plant are used to provide a myriad of end products throughout the Pacific Islands, especially on atolls.
The trunk and large branches are commonly used for building materials in house construction and for ladders. Trunks and branches may be burnt for fuel wood or used to make compost. Prop or aerial roots are used in fabrication of house walls and as supports, basket handles, paintbrushes, and skipping ropes. They are also used to produce dyes and in production of traditional medicines.
They are used for traditional medicines and as a cooking aid in some recipes. The young leaves are used in traditional medicine and for lancing boils, making fans, decoration, and pig feed. In Polynesia the fragrant, ornamental fruits of different varieties are strung into leis or garlands and used to make perfume. The fibrous, dried, mature drupes are used as paint brushes for painting tapa, for fuel, and for compost, and as fishing line floats. In Kiribati the fruit may also be used as bait for catching lobster.
The fragrant male flowers are used to scent coconut oil, perfume tapa cloth, and make garlands. Leaves, particularly young leaves, are recorded as providing fodder for domestic animals such as pigs and horses. The stems are used in house construction and also for making ladders, especially on atoll islands. Male trees have hard, solid trunks with a yellow interior containing dark brown fiber bundles. The male wood is very strong, but brittle, meaning that it can suddenly break under a heavy load. It is also a difficult wood to split.
Trunks of female trees are hard on the outside, but soft, pithy, or juicy in the interior [ 39 ]. In the northern Pacific, the discarded, dried keys are highly prized as fuel wood for cooking because they are slow burning and therefore preferred for barbecues. The trunk and branches are occasionally used as fuel wood where other fuel wood is scarce, such as on atolls. It was formerly used to make weapons lances and batons. When the flesh is removed from the inner end of a dried key, fibrous bristles are exposed. The bristle end can be used as a brush for decorating tapa, with the hard, woody outer end acting as a handle.
Fish traps are made out of the aerial roots in Kiribati.
The trunk of one variety in the Marshall Islands is used to make the masts of traditional canoes. In Hawaii Pandanus leaves were the traditionally main material for making canoes ails [ 40 ]. In many Pacific countries Pandanus leaves are used to weave traditional items of attire, including mats for wearing around the waist in Tonga, as well as hats and various types of baskets. The roots are made into skipping ropes and basket handles. String or cordage is made from the cleaned and dried prop roots. Pandanus leaves are used to weave traditional floor mats in many Pacific countries, as well as in the construction of traditional houses thatch for walls and roofing.