II, p. Franco Croce , Tre momenti del barocco letterario italiano , Firenze, Sansoni, , pp. Getto , Il Barocco letterario in Italia , cit. IV, Lettere , Milano, Mondadori, , p. Scotti , Leopardi e il Seicento , in Leopardi e la letteratura italiana dal Duecento al Seicento , atti del IV Convegno internazionale di studi leopardiani, Recanati, settembre , Olschki, Firenze , pp.
Leopardi , Crestomazia italiana. La poesia , a cura di Giuseppe Savoca, Torino, Einaudi, , pp. La prosa , a cura di Giulio Bollati, Torino, Einaudi, , con importante introduzione sulle posizioni leopardiane, pp. Giovanni Pozzi , Saggio sullo stile dell'oratoria sacra nel Seicento esemplificata sul p. Studi sul Seicento italiano , Firenze, Olschki, Ed esempi analoghi potrebbero essere condotti per i pontificati Ludovisi e Barberini, a intrecciare dinamiche di committenza tra arti e lettere, creando almeno i presupposti per un raffronto di poetiche ed esiti effettivi.
Les Dossiers du Grihl. Approches historiographiques. As Dawes has observed, this proximity is the result of artistic productions linked to urban culture:. Since so-called street poetry is characterised by an intense oral execution or performance and since it is inextricably linked with the growth of poetic expression in the music industry rap, dub poetry, deejaying , there is a quality of social stratification that is inherent in its relegation to the place of street poetry.
At the heart of this relegation is an emphasis on its otherness , its peripheral position in relation to the mainstream : 3. Er Bestia, for instance, in one of his poems, states that rapping was one of his previous activities:. In Italy, forms of artistic expression such as rap, which are typical of urban communities, are also characterised by a meaningful use of dialects : For several artists, even widely successful ones, the use of linguistic native variations symbolises the link with their origins : Indeed, Roman people perceive their vernacular as the symbol of their attachment to their territory : 14 and, due to that, linguistic regional variety seems to be particularly relevant in the production of the Poeti der Trullo, just as in the songs of the aforementioned rap bands.
An example is the verb volere to want : , one of the most common lemmas used in these texts, which follow typical Romanesco pronunciation rules. Through this phenomenon, a word like mondo world , becomes monno. Another example of vocalic conservation is represented by di of. This preposition in the Romanesco dialect is pronounced like de , showing the conservation of the atonic e , a phonetical trait that becomes even more common in the case of a vowel in the pretonic position : An example of this is the coexistence of Romanesco forms and their Italian equivalents.
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In their published works, the Poeti der Trullo tend towards a more normative use of the language. This trend is confirmed by the use of the form vojo 13 times and voglio 20 times. Indeed, the latter form is more diffuse than its vernacular version. Present-tense use of the third person of the verb volere further confirms this phenomenon. The pains they take to write poems in the Romanesco dialect are emblematic of their main objective of being the last advocates of a popular tradition, which in Rome is deeply rooted in the past.
The linguistic differences between those two textual categories allow us to gain a better understanding of the approach that these poets have towards the poetry. As we try to understand in greater depth the differences between these two categories of texts the first dissimilarity is, of course, their length. Indeed, the street poems aim to leave short, striking messages that are often closer to aphorisms than poems.
Some street poems have been taken up in the published volumes, in extended versions. However, the elements that determine the differences between street poetry and published poems are linguistic rather than thematic even if, for instance, social topics are more often encountered in their street poetry. Indeed, it gives a statistical indication of the lexical variety of a corpus.
This ratio measures the number of different types, divided by the total number of tokens.
The types are the unique words that occur in the corpus. In contrast, the tokens are the total number of words in the text. In the corpus, this ratio is multiplied by so it can be expressed as a percentage that indicates the lexical density. Applying this method to each specific poet, and to the textual typology, it is possible to summarise lexical differences within the corpus as follows:.
Published texts, consequently, tend to be more lexically innovative.
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To graphically represent the differences between the styles of these individual poets, the above data can be visualised in the following Radar graph:. This Kiviat diagram shows that Er Bestia is the poet whose street poetry and published works are most similar. To underline the stylistic differences between street poetry and published poems indicated by the TTR, the corpus was subjected to an analysis through the R package Stylo, which assembles a set of texts in groups according to their similarities.
The consensus tree script produces a virtual cluster analysis, which shows the variety of parameters that characterise the corpus, producing a final diagram that reflects a compromise between the underlying cluster analyses : 7. One parameter of the consensus tree is consensus strength with values between zero and one that provides a measure of agreement between the original trees.
It reveals a statistical arrangement between a number of virtual cluster analyses for a variety of most frequent words MFW , culling parameter values, and resulting in the automatic removal of words that are too characteristic for individual texts. The graphical representation of the three sections of the corpus was made with a consensus strength of 0.
The distance between the frequency patterns of individual texts in the corpus is defined by Classic Delta vector, a method to supervise word classification, introduced by Burrows and based on word frequency. It computes a table of distances between samples and compares each sample based on the test set against training samples, in order to find its nearest neighbour.
For the consensus tree of the three sections of the corpus, the algorithm runs from the one hundred most frequent words to the one thousand most frequent in increments of a hundred words, because this gives the most accurate results. The result of the Stylo inquiry is a consensus tree that divides the corpus in four distinct branches. These four groups of poems show similarities that go beyond the language of street poetry and poems. This stylometric inquiry confirms the TTR data. These two poets are the most prolific of the group and the similarities in their styles set them apart from the rest of the group.
For instance, their styles share common features with hip-hop and rap. It is interesting to note that the corpus is clearly divided into two groups of street poetry and poems, except for the case of the published poems of Er Farco, which Stylo places in a branch with the street poetry of Inumi Laconico and Er Bestia.
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Indeed, the stylometric analysis is based on the use of the function words and, even if the corpus is not extremely big in terms of the number of words, there is a relevant difference between the published poems and the street poetry, especially in the use of articles, auxiliary verbs and pronouns. Indeed, the function words are mainly in standard Italian in the poems, but in dialect in the street poetry. Taking the one hundred most-frequent function words, it is clear that the variation in the use of function words between published texts and street poetry is relevant:.
As the diagram shows, the function words are distributed differently between street and published poetry. Even if both ST and poems use dialect, street poetry is more characterised by this stylistic and linguistic trait, which is considered emblematic of the Roman community. Therefore, street poetry is the poetic activity that better represents the local linguistic reality and the reason I chose to focus my analysis on street poetry.
Some of their street poetry has even been copied by others in several parts of Rome. Below are four samples of poems that the Poeti der Trullo and their followers rewrote in some other parts of Rome. The first poem, by Inumi Laconico, juxtaposes mass culture, represented by television, with street culture, where poetry still exists. However, these poets are also conscious of graffiti and street poetry as intrinsic tenets of Roman culture. Er Bestia highlights this concept ironically in the following poem, in which he defines himself as the new Catullus, who comes from the district where, according to the Poeti der Trullo, poetry was born again.
Against the backdrop of these aspects of Rome, Inumi Laconico proposes his vision of poetry as a form of struggle:. These people struggle against institutional power, because its actors have forgotten them and left them in the hands of criminality and neglect, whatever their political colours. The theme of arts is present in seventeen street poems in which the Poeti der Trullo assert their stylistic originality within the street art panorama.
Interestingly, Trastevere has hosted many urban artistic performances recently. On the other hand, sex, evoked in only two poems situated in Tormarancia and Borghesiana, is seen as a relationship resulting from a mixture of physical and mental attraction. Trullo, Pian Due Torri, Portuense, and the area between Colli Portuensi and Aventino are the districts with the highest concentration of existential poems.
This category of street poems focuses on general reflections on life and how to cope with day-to-day problems. Cities, unlike villages and small towns, are plastic by nature. We mould them in our images: they, in their turn, shape us by the resistance they offer when we try and impose a personal form on them.
This category of street poems formulates a criticism of general society, local institutions, and political parties such as the Lega Nord.
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Although the Poeti der Trullo is non-partisan, they tend to express left-wing ideals. As Beasley shows, this form of street poetry performance explicitly displays stronger political content , assuming some aspects of pre-existing left-wing ideologies. To underline the relationship between themes and districts, I built a Gephi graph, in which the nodes are organised according to their real geographical coordinates using GeoLayout:.
This map of Rome has several coloured dots on it. Each dot is a poem, and each colour represents a different theme. The two interactive menus on the right allow the user to browse the poems according to their theme, or all the poems written by a single author or several authors.